Conditions of Salah
Conditions of salah are very important to be known by all Muslims as salah is one of the five pillars of Islam and the first of them. Salah and its essential conditions are explained in details in Islamic books especially Fiqh books so you can find an essential conditions book anywhere in the Islamic libraries.
Fundamentalists define a condition as a proposition in which another proposition depends; thus if it is not present the dependent proposition doesn’t exist. But if it is fulfilled ,the dependent may and may not follow.
Therefore the validity of prayer is linked to the availability of its conditions and in the event that one of the conditions is violated, the prayer is invalidated.
There are conditions that must be met for the validity of any worship which are :
- Reason (sanity)
And there are number of special conditions in prayer.
What are the conditions of validity of prayer ? (conditions of Salah)
1) The entry of its time:
The entrance of the praying time is one of the most important prerequisites of the validity of salat as the people of knowledge unanimously agreed that the prayer is invalid if it is performed before its time begins.
Allah SWT says in the Quran :
إِنَّ الصَّلاةَ كانَت عَلَى المُؤمِنينَ كِتابًا مَوقوتًا [النساء: ١٠٣]
“Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of specified times.”
﴿أَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ لِدُلوكِ الشَّمسِ إِلى غَسَقِ اللَّيلِ وَقُرآنَ الفَجرِ إِنَّ قُرآنَ الفَجرِ كانَ مَشهودًا﴾ [الإسراء: ٧٨]
(78) Establish prayer at the decline of the sun [from its meridian] until the darkness of the night and [also] the Qur’ān [i.e., recitation] of dawn. Indeed, the recitation of dawn is ever witnessed.
- i.e., the period which includes the ẓuhr, aṣr, maghrib, and ʿishā’ prayers.
- i.e., the fajr prayer, in which the recitation of the Qur’ān is prolonged.”
2) Covering the private parts of the body:
The scholars have unanimously agreed that the prayer of one who is not covering his private parts with his ability to do that is invalid. They took an evidence from the verse :
﴿يا بَني آدَمَ خُذوا زينَتَكُم عِندَ كُلِّ مَسجِدٍ وَكُلوا وَاشرَبوا وَلا تُسرِفوا إِنَّهُ لا يُحِبُّ المُسرِفينَ﴾ [الأعراف: ٣١]
(31) O children of Adam, take your adornment [i.e., wear your clothing] at every masjid, and eat and drink, but be not excessive. Indeed, He likes not those who commit excess.
- Literally, “place of prostration,” meaning any place that a Muslim prays upon the earth. The term may also refer specifically to a mosque.”
3) Purity (Taharah) from uncleanness :
The state of purity is very important in Islam. As for purification from uncleanness ,it must be in three places:
In the body, the place of salah and the clothes. Purification of clothes is so essential for performing acts of salat. Purification of the body through Ghusl (ritual bathing) since puberty and keeping the general sanitation is important.
In case of performing salat although you know that there is uncleanness in one of the three places ,the salah is invalidated.
4) purity from impurity (Hadath) :
Taharah linguistically means cleanliness from impurities both physically and morally . Technically, it means lifting the state of Hadath (bodily ritual impurity) and removing defilement that preclude valid prayers. So Wudu is obligatory before performing the daily five prayers.
حَدَّثَنِي إِسْحَاقُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنْ هَمَّامٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ لاَ يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ صَلاَةَ أَحَدِكُمْ إِذَا أَحْدَثَ حَتَّى يَتَوَضَّأَ ”.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said, “Allah does not accept prayer of anyone of you if he does Hadath (passes wind) till he performs the ablution (anew).
5) Facing the Qiblah :
Facing the Qibla in times of salah is necessary in accordance to the scholars.They took an evidence from what Allah the almighty says in the holy book, the Quran:
﴿قَد نَرى تَقَلُّبَ وَجهِكَ فِي السَّماءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبلَةً تَرضاها فَوَلِّ وَجهَكَ شَطرَ المَسجِدِ الحَرامِ وَحَيثُ ما كُنتُم فَوَلّوا وُجوهَكُم شَطرَهُ وَإِنَّ الَّذينَ أوتُوا الكِتابَ لَيَعلَمونَ أَنَّهُ الحَقُّ مِن رَبِّهِم وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغافِلٍ عَمّا يَعمَلونَ﴾ [البقرة: ١٤٤]
(144) We have certainly seen the turning of your face, [O Muḥammad], toward the heaven, and We will surely turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased. So turn your face [i.e., yourself] toward al-Masjid al-Ḥarām. And wherever you [believers] are, turn your faces [i.e., yourselves] toward it [in prayer]. Indeed, those who have been given the Scripture [i.e., the Jews and the Christians] well know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allāh is not unaware of what they do.
- The Sacred Mosque in Makkah containing the Kaʿbah.
6) Intention :
Since God almighty doesn’t accept the actions of a servant except with a pure intention, Salaah is not accepted except with intention as well.
Each Muslim must know and understand these six pre conditions. Following conditions,pillars and requirements in praying is the key for acceptance of salat.
Every Muslim has to try his best to increase his faith and do the Fard in an ideal way as this represents the contact between the Muslim and his lord.
Salah is the basis of Islam religion so keeping it means keeping your relationship with God.
The sunnah of the prophet Mohamed PBUH shows us how much the messenger cared for the obligatory salah and other nafl praayer.
In this situation, we remind our Muslim brothers and sisters to revise themselves and check their adherence to the validity of salat and arkan salat not only in compulsory salah but in all prayers.
We should turn to Allah in supplication and ask him in Sujood to accept our salah and help us perform the five pillars of Islam in an ideal way.
Purification of our souls is a must to be able to fulfill these conditions and do the pillars correctly.